Rubella in children is a widespread acute infectious disease characterized by a skin rash and swollen lymph nodes.
Basically, children between the ages of two and nine who are not vaccinated against measles are ill. It can also hurt adults, but in childhood it is more easily tolerated. Rubella is particularly dangerous in the first three months of carrying a child. This can cause congenital malformations in the development of the baby, in rare cases - fetal death inside the mother.
The source of infection can be any infected person with severe or latent rubella. It is transmitted, like many other viral infections, by airborne droplets. You can become infected by contact with an infected person. He may become a peddler of the infection without realizing it. After all, a rash on the body appears only seven days after infection and the patient is considered the peddler of the infection, another seven days after the rash appears on the body.
Today you will learn what to do with rubella in children: consider the symptoms and treatment, as well as photos of the initial stage, do not forget to mention about the measures of prevention of this disease.
The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets. Penetrating into the body through the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, the virus multiplies primarily in the lymph nodes, from which it still enters the blood during the incubation period (1 week after infection).
After 2 weeks there is a rash. 7-9 days before the rash appears, the virus can be found in the discharge of the nasopharynx and in the blood, and when it appears, in the urine and feces. After 1 week after detection of the rash, the virus disappears from the blood.
Rubella symptoms in children
In the case of rubella, the symptoms in children begin to appear after 10-20 days from the moment of infection - this is the incubation period. Already a week before the rash appears lymphadenitis of the cervical and occipital lymph nodes, which are painful on palpation.
The main and constant symptom of rubella is the appearance of a rash, first on the face and upper body, on the following day - on the buttocks. Elements of the rash exceed 3-5 mm in diameter, have no tendency to merge.
It happens that the rash at first glance is almost imperceptible, especially if it is not on the face. Most rash on lower back, buttocks, arms and legs. In this case, the child does not feel itching and discomfort. On average, the rash lasts 3 days, then disappears without a trace.
Rubella in children may be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- sore throat;
- a slight increase in temperature (up to a maximum of 38 degrees);
- increased degree of fatigue;
- runny nose;
- loss of appetite;
- swollen lymph nodes in the area on the neck and head;
- capriciousness of the child at the beginning of the disease.
In some cases, the disease can occur without the appearance of a rash (erased form). In this case, it is quite difficult to make an accurate diagnosis to the child and only the blood test for the presence of antibodies helps. Throughout this period, the child is infectious. Even if the child has no rash, it is still infectious to others.
The internal organs of the disease such as rubella do not hurt, there are, however, exceptional cases when there is a slight tachycardia in a high fever, and muffled heart sounds are heard.
How does rubella look: photo
We offer for viewing detailed photos to make it clearer what the rash looks like with this disease.
Rubella in children under one year
Typically, rubella in infants does not occur because they have acquired immunity derived from the mother. The exception is children with congenital rubella. If the mother has had it during pregnancy, the virus can be in the baby’s body for up to two years.
Difference between rubella and measles and scarlet fever
With measles, unlike rubella, fever is observed, fever and intoxication. With measles, the rash is arranged in groups, merging into large papules - with rubella it is not.
Scarlet fever also has a number of specific features. First, the rash with scarlet fever is smaller in size, they appear on the background of light, healthy skin.
With rubella, specific treatment in children is not carried out. Sometimes symptomatic drugs are prescribed.
If the nature of the disease is established, the child is treated at home. Bed rest is prescribed only at high temperatures; in other cases, everything depends on the child's well-being. Isolation from the team for 5 days since the appearance of the rash.
It should be given to the patient more liquid of any kind (juices, compotes, jelly, tea with milk), often ventilate the room, wipe the dust, wash the floors. For a period of rash is recommended to take calcium supplements in the age dosage. After the disappearance of the signs of the disease, the child can take multivitamin preparations.
Currently, scientists do not know how to treat rubella in children with specific antiviral drugs. They simply do not exist. Antibiotics for this infection are not effective. They are appointed only in case of complications, with lymphadenitis, sore throat and pneumonia.
If the child has suffered this disease, then the second time she is unlikely to get sick. The only exceptions are children with immunodeficiencies who have problems with immunity in general.
In general, the prevention of rubella in children is divided into active and passive measures.
Patients with severe symptoms are isolated until complete recovery, but not less than 5 days from the onset of the disease. It is recommended to isolate the first person with the symptoms of rubella in an institution for up to 10 days from the onset of the rash. In some cases (if there is a family, a group of pregnant women), it is advisable to extend the period of separation to 3 weeks. The impact on the rubella transmission mechanism during treatment consists in airing and damply cleaning the room, the ward where the patient is located.
Contact children under the age of 10 years who have not had rubella are not allowed to be sent to closed-type children's institutions (sanatoria, children's homes, etc.) within 21 days from the moment of separation with the patient.
Specific rubella prevention in developed countries is done by routine vaccination with a live associated measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. In addition, there are single vaccines. Vaccination is performed twice, for the first time at the age of 12-16 months, then revaccination at 6 years. In addition, adolescent girls and young women often undergo revaccination.
In most cases, the prognosis is favorable, the disease ends in full recovery without any consequences. The prognosis worsens in case of the development of rubella encephalitis.
Of particular importance is rubella in obstetric practice. The transfer of infection by the mother can have extremely unfavorable consequences for the fetus. The variety of probable fetal malformations (congenital cataract, deafness, heart defects, microcephaly, etc.) in case of rubella in pregnant women is the wider the earlier the infection occurred.